Phylogeny Trees

I chose to make a Phylogeny tree on the Cytochrome C protein. But what even is Cytochrome C? Cytochrome c is a highly conserved ~12 kDa protein consisting of a single 104 amino acid peptide with a single heme group. Because of its ever-present nature and sequence homology, cytochrome c has been used as a model protein for molecular evolution. After creating the phylogeny tree, the first thing I noticed was that organisms with a somewhat similar body type have similar amounts of Cytochrome C. As the second chart shows, the dog, pig, monkey, horse and rat are more closely related then those of the fruit fly and frog. All of these organisms have Cytochrome, although it appears that different organisms have evolved overtime to have less.

My initial search of Cytochrome C was huge! There were tens of thousands of results, and there were still abundant results even after I narrowed the sequence number of the DNA to in between 350-500. This tells me that organisms all across earth are related either very distantly or closely. It’s crazy to think how much species evolve overtime to create these differences.

The data in the T-coffee picture does reinforce the phylogeny tree for the most part. Specifically, it supports the part about the pig, dog, monkey, etc as I earlier stated. Honestly, I am a little confused on how to read the graphs. According to the T-coffee table, my data doesn’t appear to be significantly related. The colors all show a bad or average relationship. (Did I do something wrong with the data)? The T-coffee graph also reinforces the distant relationship of some species to cytochrome c. For example, the african pawed frog and roundworm are distant species of the protein in both graph and chart.

I think if I could add to the phylogenetic tree or change things, I would try to add species that are more closely related. Ecoli and Horses aren’t exactly closely related. However, I did find this lab very interesting in that some species are more closely related then I thought, and vice versa. I thought the Bovine species would be more closely related to horses, but I was wrong! It also made me realize that all species on the earth are related to a certain extent to each other, and through different proteins.




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