Summer Assignment

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1. Deciduous Leaf

This is a picture of maple tree leaves, which are deciduous leaves. A deciduous leaf is one that seasonally  falls off at ‘maturity’. Maple tree leaves change color during the fall season, typically to yellow, red and/or brown.

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2. Calvin Cycle

This is a picture of a blackberry bush. The blackberry bush is one of the many species of plant that go through the Calvin Cycle. In the cycle, CO2 enters the plant through leaf pores and diffuses in the stroma. In the stroma, the CO2 is turned into three-carbon sugars. It is unique because the Calvin Cycle is light-independent and depends ATP and NADPH to fuel the cycle.

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3. Tendril of a Plant

This is a picture of fresh green ivy. This twisty part of the ivy is called the tendril of the plant. The tendril is used by climbing plants for support. It’s twining tendency enables it to easily attach to suitable hosts for growth. This green ivy’s tendrils allow it to grow on trees, rocks, and surrounding objects.

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4. Fermentation

This picture of Greek Yogurt is an example of Fermentation. Fermentation is the process in which molecules are broken down anaerobically. Sugars are converted into acids, gases, or alcohol by microorganisms such as bacteria and yeast. Both Greek yogurt and regular yogurt are fermented. First, milk is heated the cooled to the temperature of fermentation, then bacteria cultures are added to the mixture. After a period of time, the yogurt ferments and creates lactic acid which gels the milk proteins.

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5. Genetically Modified Organism

This is a picture of an apple. They are genetically modified organisms. GMO’s are created when select genes of one organism are transferred to another organism in order to change or improve it. Although these apples aren’t actually genetically modified apples (because I couldn’t find the type at the store), there is currently one type of apple that is legally sold in the US after being genetically modified; it is called the Arctic apple and has been modified to not bruise or brown when sliced open.

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6. Cambium

This is a picture of the inside of a tree. Inside the tree there is a part called the cambium. The cambium of a tree, branch, root, etc. is the delicate tissue between the phloem (inner bark) and  the xylem (wood). This membrane then creates more phloem and xylem, allowing second growth in plants and the annual tree rings. You can slightly see the rings in this photo of the tree.

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7. R-Strategist

This is a photo of small fish. These fish are an example of R-strategist species. R-strategists generally give birth to many species, using little energy for each of them. They are usually less nurtured and some are expected to die while others live. They have early maturity and a shorter life expectancy. These fish are r-strategist species because there are many of them and there size is also very small.

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8. Autotrophs

This is a picture of a starfish. Starfish are autotrophs. An autotroph is an organism that is self-feeding and produces complex organic compounds through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis. Starfish synthesize their own energy through photosynthesis and give energy to other organisms in the food chain.

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9. K-Strategist

This is a picture of a goat. A goat is an example of a K-strategist. K-strategists are large (bigger then r-strategists) and generally produce few offspring, however they spend a lot of energy created those offspring. The offspring have a higher chance of survival and a longer life expectancy. Goats produce only a few babies and spend a lot of time and energy feeding them milk and nurturing them.

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10. Flower Ovary

This is a picture a flower ovary. A flower ovary is the female part of the flower. The ovary creates four main things for the flower: Eggs, polar nuclei, seeds and fruit. The ovary is located above or below where the petals and base meet. In this picture, the ovary is below the stamen (or those little string like things where the pollen is found).

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11. Lichen

This is a picture of a tree lichen. Lichens are composite organisms that come from cyanobacteria and algae living among fungus in a symbiotic relationship. They produce their own food using photosynthesis. They are not parasites and live on their hosts as substrates. There are many different forms of lichens; This one in the picture is called crustose. They are flakey and more bush-like then other lichens.

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12. Insect

This is a picture of a bee, which is a flying insect. Insects are invertebrate animals with six legs and generally with wings. Insects have many uses, but in this case the bee is pollinating the flower

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13. Animal that has a Segmented Body

This is a photo of an armadillo bug (aka roly poly). An armadillo big is an animal that has a segmented body. A segmented body is a division of an animal’s body, usually into repetitive segments. This different sections are functional units of the animal. The armadillo bug has 7 pairs of legs, each pair in a different segment of the body.

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14. Bryophyte

This is a picture of tree moss. Moss is an example of a bryophyte. Bryophyte plants are small, herbaceous plants that grow closely together on rocks, soil, tree trunks and leaves. They are photosynthetic and spore-producing instead of seed-producing. Of the many types of bryophytes, the moss has the highest species diversity. This picture of moss is an example of that. It is grown tightly together on the trunk and cushions the tree.

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15. Heartwood

This is a picture of the inside of a tree trunk. The inner, darker part of this tree is called heartwood. Heartwood is generally darker and denser than the outside (and lighter) part of the trunk called sapwood. Unlike sapwood, heartwood does not serve for the conduction of water and dissolved minerals. As the tree grows older, the heartwood diameter grows larger. In this picture, the heartwood is not as distinguishable but about an inch in from the side is where it begins.

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16. Basidiomycete

This is a picture of a mushroom. This mushroom is a basidiomycete. Basidiomycetes belong to a section of the fungi kingdom. They are important decomposers of wood and other organisms. They have the ability to produce asexually and sexually. Mushrooms produce asexually and also help decompose plant matter. The gills under the mushroom cap produce billions of spores that it releases, creating more mushroom offspring.

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17. CAM Plants

This is a picture of a pineapple. Pineapples have crassulacean acid metabolisms. CAM plants have a carbon fixation pathway which allow them to adapt to arid conditions. Pineapples grow in arid conditions, so they adapt by collecting carbon monoxide at night and shutting off their stomata during the day to avoid evapotranspiration.

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18. Conifer Leaf

This is a picture of a coniferous tree. The coniferous tree has conifer leaves. Conifer leaves are the leaves of fir, spruce, fir, and other cone-bearing trees. Although there are no pinecones on this tree during the summer season, they do appear later in the year.

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19. Fruit – Fleshy with Seed

This is a picture of a peach. Peaches are fruit with flesh and seeds in the center. Fruit with flesh and seeds undergo a series of complex changes. During seed dispersal, animals are attracted to the sugary fruit and then they spread the seeds. Before fleshy fruits are grown, the walls surrounding the ovaries of the plants grow into three main layers. The fruit is derived from a single ovary. This peach is a specific type of a fleshy fruit called a drupe. Drupes usually have a stony layer covering the single seed.

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Rhizome

This is a picture of asparagus. Before asparagus is cultivated, it has long horizontal stems under the ground called rhizomes. Rhizomes are horizontally growing stems. Not to be confused with roots, rhizomes have stomata which help plants breath.

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21. Pollen

This is a picture of a flower and in the center of the flower is where the pollen resides. Pollen is a coarse powder-like substance that comes from male flowers. Each grain of pollen consists of one male gamete that can fertilize a female plant ovule. Pollen is carried by insects and animals from the male plant to the female plant. This flower has a small amount of pollen in the middle.

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22. Amylase

This is a picture of my mouth. Inside my mouth contains amylase. Amylase is an enzyme found most frequently in saliva and pancreatic fluid. It converts starch and glycogen into simple sugars

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23. Chlorophyta

This is a picture of seaweed. It belongs to the chlorophyta group. Chlorophyta is all the green algae species. The chlorophyta algae have flagella and are clear-green in color.

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24. Arthropod

This is a picture of a crab. Crabs are arthropods. Arthropods are creatures distinguished by their hard exoskeletons, segmented body, jointed limbs, and bilateral looks. About 85% of all known animals in the world are arthropods!!

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25. Keratin

This is a picture of my hair. Inside my hair is a protein called keratin. Keratin is a fibrous protein forming the main structure for hair, feathers, hooves, claws, and more. It not only provides protection for the outside of hair, feathers, etc. but also determines the strength within. Keratin protects my hair and also strengthens the inner cortex of each strand. IMG_7812Me and my llama (proof I took the pictures)

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